1- For the full duplex communications, we can achieve the Self Interference Cancellation (SIC) up to 110 dB with the available technology.
2- Candidate Spectrum in Japan for 5G and beyond communications are (4.5 GHz and 28.2 GHz).
3- Smart Spectrum Management requires the use of IoT Sensors to improve 5G networks performance.
4- When using deep learning algorithms for connected and autonomous cars networks, the knowledge domain can improve the performance to a large extent.
5- 2-stages designs are acceptable if the gain in performance is large.
6- Basic protocol for connected and autonomous cars is the Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC).
7- V2X means the connection from vehicles to everything (other cars, street sides intrastructure, ….etc.) and it costs about 200 dollars per car.
8- So far, all V2X is about 5.9 GHz band which is partially shared with Wi-Fi and it is problematic.
9- IEEE new generation of V2X is called NGV.
10- 5G will make our life better because of the Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB). Other aspects of 5G (i.e. URLLC and mTC) are still not yet their.
11- 5G success can be measured by Industrial IoT (IIoT) success by 2022 or 2023.
12- 5G is different from previous communication standards because it is not about cell phones anymore, it is now about industrial and control applications, IoT, VR, AR, connected cars, autonomous cars …etc.
13- V2X in the US is a regulatory issue according to the representative of Nokia Bell Labs.
14- 3GPP wants to fit as many applications as possible in 5G and beyond standards for compatibility reasons because it is easier for many devices that will be connected to the internet to be using the same standard to coexist.
15- Important question: 5G will be expensive, so who will pay for the new services? insurance companies? tax payers? government? or others?
16- If you drive an autonomous car and involved in an accident, who is responsible legally and socially?
17- The secret for 5G multiple applications, services, and plans is the slicing using the (SDN and NFV) tools.
18- Will 5G achieve its promises?
Answer: to answer such question we have to look back to earlier generations of wireless communications:
1G introduced voice
2G perfected it
3G introduced data
4G perfected it
5G introduced URLLC
5G E or 6G will perfect it.
19- 5G- Evolution (5GE) is being established in Release 17 and 18 of the 3GPP and it is aimed in providing a spectrum up to 25GHz with global IoT coverage and public safety coverage.
20- What about 6G? it is still early to talk about!
21- Should we worry about the killer apps for 5G and beyond? No! usually such apps follow the release of the standards and we always find smart ways to utilize new capabilities.
22- Cognitive Dynamic Systems are very important and to get more information about it, you can follow this guy: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37285076500
23- Why achieving fully autonomous cars is very hard in the US?
Answer: because the current death rate because of car accidents is one death for every 100 million miles traveled which is very low rate and very very hard to reduce with any technology. So, autonomous cars need to reduce this by at least 10% or else many questions would be raised.
24- V2X energy spent per packet is 0.1 mW.
25- China is going to commercialize C-V2X next year (during 2020).
26- C-V2X is working in 5905-5925 MHz (20 MHz) band in China.
27- ITS is assigned (5875-5905 MHz) band in Europe.
28- Topics of interest in the 5G-Evolution are:
2- Small Data Enhancement.
3- Side link Enhancement.
4- Beyond 52.6 GHz Frequencies.
5- Multi-SIM for 5G.
7- 1024 QAM.
8- WLAN-5G internetworking.
9- Network Coding.
10- XR (Extended Reality).
11- Industrial URLLC (or IIoT).
12- Coverage Enhancement.
13- Further enrich MIMO.
14- NTN (Satellite and HAPS).
29- Nokia Bell labs said “eMBB will make 5G Great again!”.
30- V2R: Vehicle to road side == V2I or Vehicle to Infrastructure.
31- V2N: Vehicle to Network (or to cellular core network) connection.
32- DSRC is already deployed in Japan since 2015.
33- follow http://www.toyota-global.com for many useful information about Toyota products.
34- Research idea: we can start with a normal communication system that uses mmWave and collect reflections for Radar applications.
35- New cloud paradigm is MaaS: Mobility as a Service.
36- Autonomous cars are not necessarily connected cars as well, especially in places where there is no connection and the cars should still be autonomous.
37- We need human drivers with valid driver licenses in their cars at least for the next 20 to 25 years even if the autonomous cars are deployed.
38- Right now there are 25000 Traffic lights in New York city all with IP addresses (can be accessed and controlled remotely).
39- The lowest level of street users can be a cow walking in the street or crossing it and even this has to be taken in consideration when designing autonomous cars systems.
40- Factors that affect CAVS (Connected and Autonomous Vehicles) includes: software, networking (V2X or 5G or others), data, cloud, edge computing, AI, Standards, Privacy, Security, regulations and legal issues, design ideas, analysis, and simulations of common and rare situations.
Hope these are useful for all
Mustafa S. Aljumaily